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Stones Info

Natural stones come in an almost infinite variety of colours and textures and can be customized to fit any configuration.
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The Earth was formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The planet was so hot that the entire Earth was molten or liquid. As the Earth cooled, the lightest materials floated to the top and the heaviest materials sank to the center. The outer part of the Earth, the crust, consists of the lightest rock. The lightest rocks form the continents, which are made mostly of the rock granite. Most of the granite on the continents has, over millions of years, been broken down, transported, and deposited into sedimentary rock. These layers of sedimentary rock vary from 8-9 miles thick

What is Granite?

Next to diamonds, sapphires, and rubies, granite is the hardest natural product on Earth. Once polished, natural granite will maintain its high gloss virtually forever. Normal kitchen knives, cutlery, and cookware leave no scratches. Heat has almost no effect on natural granite, making it much safer than synthetic surfaces made of polyesters and resins.
Granite is an excellent material for building bridges and buildings because it can withstand thousands of pounds of pressure. It is also used for monuments because it weathers slowly. Engravings in the granite can be read for hundreds of years, making the rock more valuable
Granite's durability isn't measured in years; it's measured in eons. According to scientific theory, the newest piece of granite on the planet is almost 750 million years old. Granite is a common and widely occurring group of intrusive felsic igneous rocks that form at great depths and pressures under continents.

What’s in Granite?

Granite consists of orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars, quartz, hornblende, biotite, muscovite and minor accessory minerals such as magnetite, garnet, zircon and apatite. Rarely, a pyroxene is present. Ordinary granite always carries a small amount of plagioclase, but when this is absent the rock is referred to as alkali granite.
it's easier to show on a triangular (ternary) graph.

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On the figure above, the red area is the granite area. The diagram shows graphically the normalized percentages of the three major minerals found in a rock that is called granite.
Granite forms as magma cools far under the earth's surface. Because it hardens deep underground it cools very slowly. This allows crystals of the four minerals to grow large enough to be easily seen by the naked eye.

What is slate?

Slate can be made into roofing shingles ('roofing slates' in the United Kingdom), because it has two lines of breakability: cleavage and grain. This makes it possible to split slate into thin sheets. Fine slate can also be used to hone knives.

What’s in slate?

Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash, which has been metamorphosed (foliated) in layers (bedded deposits). And it’s mainly composed of quartz and muscovite (a mica), often along with biotite, chlorite, and hematite, or, less frequently, apatite, graphite, kaolin, magnetite, tourmaline, or zircon.

What is sandstone?

Sandstone is an sedimentary rock composed mainly of feldspar and quartz and varies in colour (in a similar way to sand), through grey, yellow, red, and white. Since sandstones often form highly visible cliffs and other rock formations, certain colors of sandstone may be strongly identified with certain regions.
Sandstones are often relatively soft and easy to work which therefore make them a common building and paving material. Because of the hardness of the individual grains and uniformity of grain size, and its somewhat friable nature sandstone was the prefered mineral to make grindstones for sharpening blades and other implements.
Rock formations that are primarily sandstone usually allow percolation of water, and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers. Fine grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices such as limestones or other rocks fractured from seismic activity.

What’s in sandstone?

Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to organic, like chalk or coal). They are formed from the cemented grains that may be fragments of a pre-existing rock, or else just mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, clays and silica. Grain sizes in sands are in the range of 0.1mm to 2mm. (Rocks with smaller grainsizes include siltstones and shales and are typically called argillaceous sediments, as are also clays. Rocks with larger grainsizes include both breccias and conglomerates and are termed rudaceous sediments.).
The principal mechanism for the formation of sandstone is by the sedimentation of grains out of a fluid, such as a river, lake or sea. The environment of deposition is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which on a finer scale include its grainsize, sorting, composition and on a larger scale include the rock geometry. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine.
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